• After The Ring Study: DREAM

    A fact sheet about DREAM (Dapivirine Ring Extended Access and Monitoring), an open-label extension study that provided monthly dapivirine rings for one year to women who had participated in The Ring Study, provides information on the purpose, design, and results of the study.

  • MTN–025 – HOPE

    Links are provided to information about the results and background of the HIV Open Label Prevention (HOPE) trial, a follow-on to the ASPIRE trial in which former ASPIRE participants were offered the opportunity to use the dapivirine ring in the context of a study. MTN conducted this trial to gather additional information on the ring’s safety, how women use the ring knowing that it can help reduce their risk of HIV, and the relationship between adherence and HIV protection.

  • Dapivirine Ring: The Case for Action

    This report examines the need for the the dapivirine monthly ring, its potential contribution to HIV prevention, and the steps that must be taken while the product is clearing initial regulatory approvals to ensure speedy access for women and girls.

  • Adherence Support Approaches in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials: Experiences, Insights and Future Directions from Four Multisite Prevention Trials

    Published in the journal Culture and Behavior, this paper provides a synthesis of the adherence support experiences from four pivotal PrEP trials — the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) 004, FEM-PrEP, Iniciativa Prophylaxis (iPrEx), and Vaginal and Oral Interventions to Control the Epidemic (VOICE).

  • Social Context of Adherence in an Open-Label 1% Tenofovir Gel Trial: Gender Dynamics and Disclosure in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    CAPRISA 008, an open-label extension study of tenofovir vaginal gel with coitally related dosing, provided an opportunity to explore the relationship between product adherence and gender dynamics in a context where women knew they were receiving an active product with evidence of HIV prevention effectiveness. Interviews with 63 study participants and 13 male partners in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, highlighted that the process of negotiating gel use was determined in part by relationship dynamics.

  • A Review of Social and Behavioral Factors Influencing Dapivirine Ring Use

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide a comprehensive overview of social and behavioral findings from dapivirine ring studies, to inform an investment case for the dapivirine ring and guide further research to prepare for uptake. Most completed studies addressed acceptability and adherence, but the review also examines factors such as partner buy-in, product preferences, and ring delivery. A bibliography is available at:

  • HOPE and Beyond: Next Steps and Planned Studies of the Dapivirine Vaginal Ring

    The HIV Open-Label Extension (HOPE) study offers former participants in the ASPIRE study of the dapivirine vaginal ring the opportunity to use the ring in the context of a study while researchers collect additional data on safety and adherence. This Q&A document provides information about HOPE and other studies of the dapivirine ring, including REACH, which will evaluate how adolescent girls and young women use the monthly ring and daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis.

  • Safety and Efficacy of a Dapivirine Vaginal Ring for HIV Prevention in Women

    The results of The Ring Study, a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the safety and efficacy of extended use of a vaginal ring containing dapivirine for the prevention of HIV infection among women in South Africa and Uganda,were published December 1, 2016, in The New England Journal of Medicine. The authors concluded that the dapivirine ring was not associated with any safety concerns and was associated with a rate of acquisition of HIV-1 infection that was lower than the rate with placebo.

  • MTN-017: A Rectal Phase 2 Extended Safety and Acceptability Study of Tenofovir Reduced-Glycerin 1% Gel

    The results of a Phase II trial of reduced-glycerin 1% tenofovir gel among men who have sex with men and transgender women, published in Clinical Infectious Diseases, found that rectal application of the gel was safe and acceptable. Adherence and reported likelihood of future use were similar for intermittent use of the gel and a daily oral PrEP regimen, but lower for the daily gel regimen.

  • FEM-PrEP Adherence Publications

    This page provides links to articles or article abstracts from the FEM-PrEP trial of the effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among women at high risk of acquiring HIV infection. It includes a section on articles about adherence to daily PrEP among the trial participants.